Animal FarmBy George Orwell
anifrm.jpg

Mike, RJ, Scott, Will, Cody
Summary
Animal Farm is the novel of the century! Written in 1945 by George Orwell, this novel clearly shows the communist ideals shown in communist Russiaand Nazi Germany. The animals of Manor farm decide to rebel and take over the farm and rename it Animal Farm. The pigs are clearly the brightest of all the animals. They have the ability to read and write. Two pigs, Napoleon and Snowball, are the leaders of Animal Farm. Eventually, Napoleon drives Snowball out of Animal Farm with his pack of ferocious dogs. Napoleon becomes the unchallenged leader of the farm. He starts to make ridiculous rules and conditions, like those of Joseph Stalin and Adolf Hitler's regimes. The farm also switches from a democracy where the animals vote on issues to a dictatorship where Napoleon makes all the decisions and rules. Animal Farm is a great book that everyone should read.


Why do we read "Animal Farm"?

(Scott Ward)
The story of Animal Farm can be read in a number of ways. The first way would be as a fantasy fairy tail and the reader can watch as the animals of the Manor farm try to create a perfect society or Utopia around the ideas of Animalism. This way of reading draws in readers that are looking for a quick, entertaining read. Also, the author George Orwell has a very distinct writing style that is very to the point and he usually does not leave the reader waiting around in suspense for too long. A fast skim of the surface is all a reader needs to get a fun experience out of Animal Farm. The second way of reading this book would be the historical way. The events and characters in Animal Farm are perfect allegories for Stalins Russia. The book instantly become much more complicated and enjoyable, depending on who you are. The historical facts and Government ideals found within the text is why it is a popular choice for teachers to have in there curriculum. If you are reading for a Fantasy story or for a historical explanation of the Russia Stalin had created, Animal Farm is the book for you.



Literary Criticism (Historical/Cultural)

Animal Farm was published in 1945, the year of Adolf Hitler’s death and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. At the time, capitalists’ experienced great anxiety about how all the revolutions occurring in the world where likely to ruin it. Orwell wrote this novel in light of the end of World War II and the Allies’ struggle with socialist fascism, but he meant to convey the general concern that similar altercations could occur in the future. The novel describes how a group of animals take over the farm in which they live and institute a government whose initial priorities are based on the belief that all animals are equal. Here, Orwell allegorically illustrates how a class of people suppressed for years can instantaneously rise to power and establish a radically different social system. With this he warns that nations experiencing such revolutions, like those of the Nazis in Germany and Soviets in Russia, tend to gradually lose their original ideals and develop into a totalitarian state. Animal Farm is clearly a reflection of the anxieties of the contemporary capitalist and an insight into how classless social systems are extremely vulnerable to fascism.









Artifacts pertaining to the characters Napoleon and Snowball:


Artifact 1

Merriam Webster defines Comrade as, “An intimate friend or associate: companion.” The Animals on the Farm often refer to their dictator as “Comrade Napoleon”. This is ironic because in reality, Napoleon was not an intimate friend of the Animals. He was much more of an oppressor than a companion.




Artifact 2
"It is enough that the people know there was an election. The people who cast the votes decide nothing. The people who count the votes decide everything."
- Joseph Stalin
This quote by Stalin expresses his manipulative manner. To the public he appears to support a communist democracy, but in actuality, Stalin and his fellow leaders are the only ones who influence the decisions. This is very similar to Napoleon’s use of democracy. For example, the first democratic event of the newly-formed Animal Farm was a vote to either put Snowball's Windmill Plan into design or to focus solely on Napoleon's plan to increase food production. When the Animals voted for Snowball and against Napoleon, Napoleon simply had his trained dogs chase Snowball out of the farm. Even though the animals had voiced their decision to build a windmill, a decision was ultimately made in respect to only Napoleon's interests.



Artifact 3




Artifact 4

http://library.thinkquest.org/C0112205/stalinvstrotsky.html This article helps describe the relationship between Napoleon (analogous to Stalin) and Snowball (analogous to Trotsky) and how the intentions of Major (analogous to Lenin) were not held up after his death. The main parallels are supported in the excerpt below:

>>>Stalin and Trotsky fight for Power


>>>Before Lenin died, already there were two contenders for his place - the brilliant Leon Trotsky and the cunning Joseph Stalin. The most obvious choice would have been Trotsky, with his quick mind and intelligent speeches. His military skill during the civil war had gained him a lot of support as well. Stalin on the other hand, had been quite an insignificant figure during that time, being only the editor of the propaganda newspaper Pravda. He did, however, make many wise moves, by getting to know the more outstanding people in the party and getting to know them better.
The sick, ailing Lenin knew he was dying soon. After suffering two strokes, it was time to decide on a new leader for the country. He had more faith in Trotsky than in Stalin, describing Stalin's motives as evil, and wanting Trotsky to carry on. He wrote a letter saying that Trotsky should be named as his successor, while Stalin should be gotten rid of. Stalin naturally hid this letter from the parliament to protect himself, but feared that Trotsky might show it to them at the next meeting, where he would be powerless to stop him. Luckily, Trotsky did not have enough time and Stalin's position was consolidated.
In the meantime, the power struggle was still going on between Trotsky and Stalin. Trotsky was gathering a lot of support with his fluent and brilliant speeches while Stalin was scheming plots to defame his opponents and bring himself to power. Trotsky was succeeding with his seemingly limitless energy and superb oratorical skills, while Stalin's public appearances were strong but not as lasting. Trotsky was skilled in the areas of theories and policies, while Stalin was clearly lacking in these areas. Trotsky seemed to be heading towards an undeniable victory.
However, things started to change. Stalin teamed up with Politburo members Kamenev and Zinoviev. They began to slam Trotsky, picking up all minor faults of his and raking up his past. They emphasised clearly on his Menshevik past and how he was but a newcomer to the party.



Artifact 5
(Scott Ward)
(This is an invitation that Napoleon would have sent out to the neighboring farmers to celebrate their trade.)

Animal Farm
Napoleon
Animal Farm Social
To: Mr. Frederick
From: The Honorable Napoleon
Date: March 3, 1940

You are cordially invited to join me, Comrade Napoleon, in an Animal Farm Social to celebrate a new found friendship between animals and humans. A long period of fighting and conflict has come to and end I am opening my farm to you. A tour will be given by my lawful minion, Squealer. After the tour to see Animal Farm's recent success, a party will follow in the manor house. Alcohol and snacks will be served at the party’s finale!




Artifact 6
"Where force is necessary, there it must be applied boldly, decisively and completely. But one must know the limitations of force; one must know when to blend force with a maneuver, a blow with an agreement."
- Leon Trotsky
This quote was made by Leon Trotsky about how force is sometimes necessary in government. Snowball directly resembles Leon Trotsky in Animal Farm. Snowball influences Napoleon to create the windmill to benefit the farm. He applied force to influence the installation of the windmill and this quote by Trotsky shows that sometimes force is necessary.



Artifact 7
external image 600px-Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union.svg.pngexternal image 12956.png
(Red) USSR Flag
(Green) Animal Farm Flag
The similarity between the hammer-and-sicle and hoof-and-horn clearly implies Animal Farm's intention to represent the working Animals, just as the USSR attempt to govern with the intentions of the working class. The hoof in the flag is that of Napoleon, which implies that Napoleon was supposed to be viewed as a fellow worker, similar to how the communist leaders were supposed to be viewed as equal to those of the working class. In both situations, the representations are ironic because Napoleon and the communist leaders pretend to be equal while actually acting as tyrannical superiors.



Artifact 8
(Scott Ward)
A diary entry that Snowball would have written after Napoleon had him run off the farm:
Dear Diary,

It has been three weeks now. Ever since Napoleon has run me off the farm I have been trying to make contact with the other animals in secret. I have been living on the outskirts of the farm, right next to Mr. Frederick’s farm. I have reason to believe that Napoleon has blamed me for the destruction of the Windmill. The posters I have seen blowing around in the wind are asking for my head. I fear now that Animal farm will fall under Napoleons reign.
SnowBall
11/4/39



Artifact 9
http://www.hitler.org/writings/first_writing/ This letter written by Hitler serves as an allegory to Snowball and Napoleon's hatred of humans. Hitler writes about his hatred of Jews, and like Hitler, the pigs' hate was what united all the animals of Animal Farm.

Dear Herr Gemlich,
If the threat with which Jewry faces our people has given rise to undeniable hostility on the part of a large section of our people, the cause of this hostility must be sought in the clear recognition that Jewry as such is deliberately or unwittingly having a pernicious effect on our nation, but mostly in personal intercourse, in the poor impression the Jew makes as an individual. As a result, antisemitism far too readily assumes a purely emotional character. But this is not the correct response. Antisemitism as a political movement may not and cannot be molded by emotional factors but only by recognition of the facts. Now the facts are these:
To begin with, the Jews are unquestionably a race, not a religious community. The Jew himself never describes himself as a Jewish German, a Jewish Pole or a Jewish American, but always as a German, Polish or American Jew. Jews have never adopted more than the language of the foreign nations in whose midst they live. A German who is forced to make use of the French language in France, Italian in Italy, Chinese in China does not thereby become a Frenchman, Italian, or Chinaman, nor can we call a Jew who happens to live amongst us and who is therefore forced to use the German language, a German. Neither does the Mosaic faith, however great its importance for the preservation of that race, be the sole criterion for deciding who is a Jew and who is not. There is hardly a race in the world whose members all belong to a single religion.
Through inbreeding for thousands of years, often in very small circles, the Jew has been able to preserve his race and his racial characteristics much more successfully than most of the numerous people among whom he has lived. As a result there lives amongst us a non-German, alien race, unwilling and indeed unable to shed its racial characteristics, its particular feelings, thoughts and ambitions and nevertheless enjoying the same political rights as we ourselves do. And since even the Jew's feelings are limited to the purely material realm, his thoughts and ambitions are bound to be so even more strongly. Their dance around the golden calf becomes a ruthless struggle for all the possessions that we feel deep down are not the highest and not the only ones worth striving for on this earth.
The value of an individual is no longer determined by his character or by the significance of his achievements for the community, but solely by the size of his fortune, his wealth.

Yours Truly,
Adolf Hitler



Artifact 10
(Scott Ward)
http://worldwideblues.com/files/windmill.JPG Snowball had created a layout of the windmill that would be similar to these German Blueprints of a windmill.
external image windmill.JPG



Artifact 11
This is a eulogy that Snowball would have written shortly after the death of Major.
Fellow comrades! Today our farm has suffered a great loss. Our friend, our leader, our inspiration, Old Major, has passed on. He has led us for many years now, and we all know that this loss will have a substantial effect on our farm. He has put us through thick and thin. Hard times and good times, he has always been there. Even though he has left our farm forever, he will still be in our farm in spirit! Never forget the things he has done for us. Without Major you may think we will lose the aspect of a leader in our farm. However, we will overcome this great blow to our farm, and achieve greatness. Me and the other pigs in the farm will be sure to lead us to freedom from the two legged humans. The humans will be defeated! Four legs will prevail! We will have freedom!
Snowball



Artifact 12

Napoleon’s Lifetime Achievements:

v Claimed dictatorship over the farm after the rebellion

v Wrote the commandments of the farm

v Chased Snowball out of Animal Farm

v Organized the building of the windmill

v Started trade with neighboring farmers

v Met with neighboring farms

v Executed "traitors”



Artifact 13
This short profile from http://www.adherents.com/people/ps/Joseph_Stalin.html of Joseph Stalin describes his atheism. This is similar to Napoleon and his fellow pig leaders because they openly voiced their disbelief in the farm's popular belief in Sugarcandy Moountain, the animals' realm of afterlife.
Celebrity: Joseph Stalin
Religion/Belief: Atheism
Quotes, More Information, Sources:
The Soviet dictator said, "You know, they are fooling us, there is no God... all this talk about God is sheer nonsense." - E. Yaroslavsky, Landmarks in the Life of Stalin



Artifact 14

This is the trailer to the 1999 film based on "Animal Farm" with the same title, and is represents most of the major aspects and events of the book. Although additional plotlines and characters can be pointed out in the trailer, it provides an excellent visualization of how the animals were inspired to overthrow and succeeded in the overthrow of Jones. The trailer also provides a good representation of how Animal Farm gradually deteriorated from a classless utopia to a totalitarian dystopia.



Artifact 15
(Scott Ward)
external image 31952-bigthumbnail.jpgA place is described to the animals on a couple occasions that is an allegory for heaven. This place is called Sugar-candy Mountain and motivates the animals to work harder. Mosses, the crow that is telling the animals about the Mountain is a representation of the Roman catholic church in Stalin's Russia. We learn of Napoleons lack of religious beliefs but he does not mind the stories that Mosses tells to the animals. Napoleon feels that if the animals have a belief in a higher being, they will work harder and faster, as power hungry as Napoleon is, he does not try to compete with the animals new found "Leader".



Artifact 16
In George Orwell's novel "Animal Farm", he describes how the acquirement of power turned the pigs from friends and "comrades" into dictators with no sympathy. The story could have backgrounds based on the Soviet regime, or it could be a warning to humans about the true human nature. For this reason the story is left off as a remembrance of the past, or a warning of what could be the future.

Here are our Works Cited and Research Log:







Independent Artifacts

RJ Tischler:
1) USSR_Poster.jpgUSSR Propaganda Poster
2) Chalk - Representative of the pigs' power-hungry, ready-to-lead character traits.
3) http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/angrif08.htm Nazi Newspaper Article containing similar rhetoric devices (demonization, rhetorical questions, glorification of dictator) used by Napoleon and Squealer's speeches.



Mike Martin:
1)external image joseph-stalin.jpgPicture of Joeseph Stalin, compares to Napoleon.
2) Eddie Meduza - Heil Hitler
3) external image 1984.jpgAnimal Farm to 1984 comparison.



Scott Ward
1)
external image 12956.pngA description of Snowballs flag and how it represent his goals for the future republic of Animal Farm.
2)
http://www.revleft.com/vb/communist-poems-poetry-t117768/index.html

THE WORKERS CRY OUT FOR BREAD
The merchants cry out for markets.
The unemployed were hungry. The employed
Are hungry now.
The hands that lay folded are busy again.
They are making shells.

And

WHEN IT COMES TO MARCHING MANY DO NOT
KNOW
That their enemy is marching at their head.
The voice which gives them their orders
Is their enemy's voice and
The man who speaks of the enemy
Is the enemy himself.

This is a short poem that I feel depicts the events in animal farm perfectly. The second stanza says how all the people are oblivious to their real enemy, as how the animals are unknowingly working for there greatest threat, Napoleon.

3) A map of animal farm that shows the windmill atop a mountain. I felt like the windmill needed to be on a high place of ground because the animals look up to it as a beacon of hope throughout the entire book.





Cody:
1)

Dear Diary,

As Major had predicted, a rebellion came. It was a little sooner than I thought it would come, but I guess it’s time for us animals to rise. After not feeding us for a day and then when Mr. Jones tried to beat our cow friend, Sally, it had gone too far. They tried whipping her! She turned around and defended herself like a champ and drove the men off. All in all, the day started out rough but ended great. The animals are now the leaders of Animal Farm! I don’t know who is going to actually lead the animals, but I know I would like to. Napoleon, the leader of Animal Farm, yeah that would be nice. Ruling the animals would show that I am a figure to be respected and I would have the authority that I deserve. It’ll be interesting to see what happens tomorrow when we realize that the farm is actually ours and it always will be.

Napoleon
2)
In a few of George Orwell’s books he writes about totalitarianism. For example, the novels 1984 and Animal Farm are about this subject. In Animal Farm the animals’ rebel and one named Napoleon claims himself the leader and is the new dictator of the farm. In 1984 it talks about the perfect totalitarianism society and how people are afraid of the rise of communism. The different parts in the novel divine the book into sections that explain what the communist party is all about. Since this was the time period that George Orwell lived in, a lot of his inspiration came from what was happening. The communist party was rising and the world was scared. That is why a common theme in George Orwell’s novels is communism and totalitarianism.
external image 1984-book.jpg
3)
The novel, “Animal Farm” by George Orwell has a historical connection that is close to the personality of Joseph Stalin. In the text Napoleon would be an equal to Stalin, when Stalin was ruling he was considered one of the strongest leaders, which would also relate to Napoleon. By comparing Napoleon to Stalin, George Orwell was showing how in the novel Napoleon had a lot of power and could not be questioned about it. The dictatorial power that Napoleon claimed is a lot like how the dictators in the early to mid 1900’s acquired their power. Being a dictator required a person, or character, to have a lot of authority and Napoleon had it, just like Joseph Stalin.
external image stalin.jpg



Will
1)
external image _42761719_trotsky_stalin416x300.jpg
The picture above shows Leon Trotsky (left) and Joseph Stalin (right).These were two leaders of Russia in the early 1900's. Needless to say they were both corrupt leaders and neither of them could be trusted. Trotsky resembled Snowball from animal farm, while Stalin resembled Napoleon. Both were leaders, however Trotsky was eventually forced out of power by Stalin. This is much like how in the novel, Snowball is expelled from the farm by Napoleon.
2)
external image animal1.jpg
This picture represents how Orwell wanted to show the readers how the pigs have became corrupt just as the humans were. He shows the pigs as walking on two legs and nearly the whole book the pigs were saying two legs are bad.

3)
As Napoleon becomes more powerful, he replaced "Animal Farm!" with another anthem, written by Minimus. The anthem praised and glorified Napoleon, attributing many of the successes on the farm to him, even though he had little or no role in them. The poem marked the general happy feeling towards the rule of Napoleon at the time in the book and was painted on the wall of the big barn opposite the seven comandments. It was surrounded by a portrait of Napoleon drawn by Squealer in white paint.

Friend of fatherless!
Fountain of happiness!
Lord of the swill-bucket!
Oh, how my soul is on
Fire when I gaze at thy
Calm and commanding eye,
Like the sun in the sky,
Comrade Napoleon!Thou are the giver of
All that thy creatures love,
Full belly twice a day, clean straw to roll upon;
Every beast big and small
Sleeps at peace in his stall,
Thou watchest over all,
Comrade Napoleon!Had I a sucking-pig,
Ere he had grown as big
Even as a pint bottle or as a rolling-pin,
He should have learned to be
Faithful and true to thee,
yes, his first squeak should be
"Comrade Napoleon!"