All Quiet On The Western Front-
Erich Maria Remarque
Brian, Bryan, David, Cooper, Marjorie

198621_1020_A.jpg
"I am young, I am twenty years old; yet I know nothing of life but despair, death, fear, and fatuous superficiality cast over an abyss of sorrow. I see how peoples are set against one another, and in silence, unknowingly, foolishly, obediently, innocently slay one another."
 Summary: All Quiet on the Western Front is the story of a young German soldier, Paul Baumer, during the First World War. Since Paul narrates his story, in the first person and in present tense, the novel has the feel of a diary, with entries on everyday life interspersed with horrifying battle episodes. Paul and a group of young boys are first encouraged to join the military. Thinking that it would be a great adventure, they enlisted, not knowing the fate that lies before them. At first, the group is sent to training. They aren't in a serious mood, thinking that war conditions aren't as bad as they really are. When the boys are sent to the front, it is only then when they start to realize how bad war really is. This is when the boys are cramped into the trenches. Some of the soldiers were shell-shocked because of the constant bombardment. When one of the boys was wounded, he was taken to a hospital where there were many wounded soldiers. Some soldiers had to have parts of their bodies amputated in order to survive. When Kemmerich was in the hospital, Müller ask for his pair of boots. The boots was a visible reminder to the boys of the cost of war. Paul then has to face his own conscience when he kills one of the Frenchmen. He doesn't see the face of an enemy but just a face of another human being. He tries to comfort himself by promising to help the fallen soldier's family. After Paul is relieved from the front line, he decides to go on leave and return home. But when he tries to tell everyone of the horrible conditions of the trenches, everybody either laughs him off or calls him a coward. Paul returns before his leave actually ended, wishing that he had never come home. In the end, when Paul loses Kat, Paul realizes that the war has destroy his way of life. He has lost all his friends and has nothing to return to.Artifact 1: propoganda_poster.jpgThe most famous war poster was Alfred Leete's 1914 image of Lord Kitchener pointing directly at the viewer. This method of propoganda was so successful that the American's adapted this image for World War I and II. This poster represents how the army constantly needed more men to enlist in the military. The reason they needed more men was because a great deal of men kept dying on the front. Propoganda posters such as this one were made to make war sound exciting and honorable, and how you should be willing to fight and die for your country. Because of this, men enlist. But the boys back home don't really know what the war is like. When they finally get to the front, the quickly realize war isn't that great after all, and want to return home immediately. In the novel, when Paul takes leave, he visits his old teacher, Kantorek, and tries to tell him how horrible the war is, but all the men just call him a coward and refuse to believe him. These posters were designed to make men believe war is great, because if the men knew how horrible the war was, no one would enlist.Artifact 2:Diary EntryJanuary 1st 1916- A Happy New Year to Everybody! Somehow, we though it had brought us luck, but when we saw our rations, that confirmed the luck of 1915.Sea still very rough and waves mountains high. Sailed at 4 p.m., everybody downhearted. Terrible night, and at times it was impossible to see the escort. The "Persia" only 2 hours behind us, and we expected Christmas mail at Port Said. All very sea-sick, and wishing we had never left France. Arrived at Port Said very early in the morning, and heard that the "Persia" had been torpedoed, and our mail "gone West". That was the first bad news we had received during that part of the voyage. - Edwin Evan Jones
This diary entry from Jones shows how terrible the conditons of the war were. In the very frist sentence, he says, " Somehow, we though it had brought us luck, but when we saw our rations, that confirmed the luck of 1915." By saying this, it shows that he lost all hope in things getting better in the war. He thought that because it's a new year, their rations might be a little better than the previous year, but it wasn't. Because of the war, a lot of the soldiers didn't have enough to eat and died of malnutrion.


Artifact 3:

MCgi%27s%20surrender-German%20magazine.jpg

In this photo are captured prisoners from the allied armies. These prisoners after being caught were sent to prisons and/or shot and killed by German forces. This connects to the theme of “The Horror of War” because in the prisons that they are sent to, they are overcrowded, with no sanitary facilities. As well as very bad sanitation these prisoners were given very poor food and some died because of malnutrition and typhoid fever. The shooting of the soldiers fit the theme because German soldiers would kill unarmed soldiers who have already surrendered and cannot fight back.


Artifact 4:
ObituariesFranz Kemmerich of Germany died at age 19. He was sent to the western front to fight in the trenches. While fighting, he got shot in the leg and contracted gangrene. Due to this disease, he had to get his leg amputated and died.Paul Baumer of Germany died at age 23. He enlisted in the army at age 17 during the first year of the war, and was impacted greatly on the brutal life of trench warfare. He was wounded a few times and took leave, but always came right back to the front. Unfortunately. the day before the war ends, Paul gets shot and dies.Kemmerich's wound was suppose to be an easy fix, but due to the horrible conditions and inadequate medical attention at the front, his wound became a lot worse than it should've been, and he died. During the war, many soliders caught all types of diseases, and most of them lost their lives. Paul, on the other hand, had died emotionally and spiritually because of the war, and just gave up trying. So in a way, the war had killed him before he physically died.




















Marjorie's Literary AnalysisArtifact 1:446138.jpgPaul would've seen this scene a lot because he was in the trenches for most of the war. This picture expresses his spirit because the picture is ver dark, dreary, cold and scary. And because of the war, this is exactly how Paul felt. The war had killed Paul emotionally and spiritually and he became a very dark person who didn't beleive in anything anymore except war. The theme of war is prevelant throughout the novel and is something Paul experienced firsthand, as shown in the photograph.Artifact 2:
Deutschland, Deutschland über alles,
Germany, Germany above all,

Über alles in der Welt,
Above everything in the world,
Wenn es stets zu Schutz und Trutze
When always, for protection,
Brüderlich zusammenhält,
We stand together as brothers.
Von der Maas bis an die Memel,
From the Maas to the Memel
Von der Etsch bis an den Belt -
From the Etsch to the Belt -
Deutschland, Deutschland über alles,
Germany, Germany above all
Über alles in der Welt.
Above all in the world.


Deutsche Frauen, deutsche Treue,
German women, German loyalty,
Deutscher Wein und deutscher Sang
German wine and German song,
Sollen in der Welt behalten
Shall retain in the world,
Ihren alten schönen Klang,
Their old lovely ring
Uns zu edler Tat begeistern
To inspire us to noble deeds
Unser ganzes Leben lang.
Our whole life long.
Deutsche Frauen, deutsche Treue,
German women, German loyalty,
Deutscher Wein und deutscher Sang
German wine and German song.


Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit
Unity and law and freedom
für das deutsche Vaterland!
For the German Fatherland
Danach lasst uns alle streben
Let us all strive for that
Brüderlich mit Herz und Hand!
In brotherhood with heart and hand!
Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit
Unity and law and freedom
Sind des Glückes Unterpfand;
Are the foundation for happiness
Blüh' im Glanze dieses Glückes,
Bloom in the glow of happiness
Blühe, deutsches Vaterland.
Bloom, German Fatherland.


Deutschland, Deutschland über alles,*
Germany, Germany above all*
Und im Unglück nun erst recht.
And in misfortune all the more.
Nur im Unglück kann die Liebe
Only in misfortune can love
Zeigen, ob sie stark und echt.
Show if it's strong and true.
Und so soll es weiterklingen
And so it should ring out
Von Geschlechte zu Geschlecht:
From generation to generation:
Deutschland, Deutschland über alles,
Germany, Germany above all,
Und im Unglück nun erst recht.
And in misfortune all the more.
Paul would've liked the German National Anthem because at this time, Germany was huge on nationalism and anything that could bring Germany closer together as a country was liked by most people. This song relates to the theme because the theme of the novel is Germans fighting in the war, so they would've listened to this song because they're proud of their heritage and was probably uplifting for them. Listening to this song in the trenches might have reminded them of what they're fighting for and reminded them of home.

Artifact 3:
450px-All_Quiet_on_the_Western_Front_(6).jpg 0.jpg
This clip from the movie, All Quiet on the Western Front, shows Paul and two others soldiers shooting at their French enemy, and while the two other soldiers die, Paul lives. This clip portrays Paul's spirit because it shows that Paul cares for his friends a lot and that he's very determined at this point in the movie to live. The theme of the novel is war and the clip I chose shows Paul in the trenches fighting for his country.



Artifact 5:
Death_Certificate_copy.jpg

This would have been what Paul’s death certificate might have looked like. World War 1 ended on November 11th, 1918, the death certificate shown states that Paul died on the 24th of October, 1918. That means that Paul died only eighteen days before the end of the war!

Artifact 6:

27/1/1915


This man, Maximillion Vogt has obtained the deadliest wounds of any man I have seen so far during this World War. He was fighting in a trench when a grenade fell next to him. I was told that he then jumped on top of it to protect his fellow soldiers. He was unfortaunate enough to have survived the explosion and is now laying at my station bleeding profusely out of a 2 inch diameter hole in his chest. The explosion has also blasted off his left arm up to his elbow. I am going to give him some sedatives to ease his pain but I know that he won’t last linger then thirty minutes.

Josef Virchow


This doctor’s report shows that in WW1, there were many horrible wounds that could happen to soldiers during the war. Some people may have small wounds, like being shot in the leg, or they can have one of their limbs blasted off. It also shows that war is a very scary and deadly time for everyone fighting.

Artifact 7:

I am singing to you
Soft as a man with a dead child speaks;
Hard as a man in handcuffs,
Held where he cannot move:

Under the sun
Are sixteen million men,
Chosen for shining teeth,
Sharp eyes, hard legs,
And a running of young warm blood in their wrists.

And a red juice runs on the green grass;
And a red juice soaks the dark soil.
And the sixteen million are killing. . . and killing
and killing.

I never forget them day or night:
They beat on my head for memory of them;
They pound on my heart and I cry back to them,
To their homes and women, dreams and games.

I wake in the night and smell the trenches,
And hear the low stir of sleepers in lines
Sixteen million sleepers and pickets in the dark:
Some of them long sleepers for always,

Some of them tumbling to sleep to-morrow for always,
Fixed in the drag of the world's heartbreak,
Eating and drinking, toiling. . . on a long job of killing.
Sixteen million men.

Carl Sandburg


This poem is connected to the theme “The Horrors of War” by showing when in war how bad it can get and what the outcome of it is. The poem explains that in war many soldiers are just killing each other without a second thought to it. The poem explains that when the armies fight each other they leave behind ruined areas that were once beautiful in the lines “And a red juice runs on the green grass; And a red juice soaks the dark soil.” The poem says that “sixteen million are killing. . . and killing and killing” which is showing that during a war many people fight each other and they don’t stop killing because they each believe in the fact that killing the others is what they came for.


Map Artifact

This diagram/map shows how horrible the entire layout of the trenches were. There was constant shelling, charges, and planes flying overhead. These situations gave the men nowhere to run and nowhere to hide because if a shell hit a bunker the men inside would still die. The men which were stationed at the front didn’t even get food half of the time because the intense battle would not permit it. These many horrors were the last thing many young men saw before they were killed or wounded. These images and sounds probably haunted them forever, and really show the horrors of war.
external image daniel7.jpg
"Problems Facing Attacking Troops." Tactics – How the war was meant to be won . Web. 8 Jan 2011. http://www.harris-academy.com/departments/history/Trenches/danielh/danielh.2.htm.
Game Cover

external image WW1playing%20cardsm.jpg

Instead of having your usual queens, kings, jacks, and aces, on these cards you see pictures of the war. The pictures are mostly of battlefields and troops, which may not be bad at a glance, but if you pause and think each battlefield is where many men died. That expanse of wire and sticks may be where a victory was had but it doesn’t really teel the whole story on loss of life. This horror is much to often overlooked and war becomes glorified, but the truth is that those men lined up holding gun and marching may look cool but some of them will die and they will all never be the same. This too is another horror of war.

"WW1 Playing Cards." Callingtons Old Time Radio & WW1 Collectables. Web. 8 Jan 2011. http://www.callingtons.co.uk/WW1collectables/index.php?cPath=23.





external image 4292955523_7f7727c931.jpg

This man is afraid, he has seen the horrors and knows how bad the war really. He knows he is alone and knows he may die. Even though the battle rages on, the leaders still want to win and don’t realize what they have created, but horror.



"WW1 Trench - Shell Shock." flickr. Web. 9 Jan 2011. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/megashorts/4292955523/>.

Artifact 10:
Somme Battlefields (Northern France)
July 1, 1916 – November 18, 1916
sommeareamap.gif

Map of Somme Battlefields
(http://www.ww1battlefields.co.uk/somme.html)

Total Casualties (1,052,757)
(dead, wounded, missing & captured)
Britain
415,690 (90,000 dead)
France
202,567
German
434,500

This map connects to the theme of “The Horror of War” by showing how the casualties of one of the major battles in WW1. It connects because the stats show how deadly the battle was between the months fought. This explains the theme because of how many people died. Most of the people who died probably were killed when they started an attack because of all of the mortars and machine guns tearing them apart. This fits the theme because when the soldiers died it was most likely a very disturbing sight.


1. Century, the beginning of the 20th, and the concept of battle had gotten. "Twentieth Century Atlas - Casualty Statistics - Biggest Battles and Massacres." RCN D.C. Metro | High-Speed Internet, Digital Cable TV & Phone Service Provider. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Jan. 2011. <http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/battles.htm#Battles>.
2. Clodfelter, Micheal. Warfare and armed conflicts: a statistical reference to casualty and other figures, 1618-1991. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1992. Print.




Artifact 11: Diary Entry
Sadly, today Kemmerich died. He died after he had gotten his foot amputated because of a wound to his leg. I was right beside him as he died. I tried to get a nurse to help but as I did it was too late and the nurses took him away. I had to take his boots and give them to Müller as he had already asked for them. As I walked to give the boots to Müller I thought about how I was going to tell Kemmerich’s mother about his death. I had already promised her that I would do anything to keep him alive and take care of him. I hope that she isn’t angry at me for not being able to keep my promise.

Artifact 12: German Song
Originally written by Heinrich Harries in 1871; the national song “Heil Dir im Siegerkranz” (“Hail to Thee in Victor's Crown”) was used throughout WW1. During WW1 Erich Maria Remarque would have listened to this song. This would have kept many of the soldier’s morale’s high because the song was telling them to continue fighting and not to give up. The lyrics explain that one should always love Germany and listen to the emperor.
LYRICS:
English translation
1. Hail to thee in victor's crown,
Ruler of the fatherland!
Hail, Emperor, to you.
Feel in the splendour of the throne
fully the highest joy:
To be the favourite of the people!
Hail, Emperor, to you.

2. Neither steed nor weapons
secure the steep height
where princes stand:
Love of the fatherland,
Love of the free man
founds the sovereign's throne
like a rock in the sea.

3. Holy flame, glow
glow and never extinct
for the fatherland!
We all will stand then
courageous for one man,
fight and bleed with joy
for throne and empire!

4. Trade and sciences
may rise upwards their head
with courage and power!
Warrior and heroes' deeds
may find their laurels of fame
faithfully preserved
on your throne!

5. Be, Emperor Wilhelm, here
a long time your people's glory,
the pride of mankind!
Feel in the splendour of the throne
fully the highest joy:
To be the favourite of the people!
Hail, Emperor, to you.


Artifact 13: Another Short Story
After reading “Three Comrades” by Erich Maria Remarque one can tell that Remarque connects the themes of “All Quiet on The Western Front” and “Three Comrades”. He does this by showing that life the WW1 trenches can change someone’s life. He connects them by showing how either after the war or off the front the warfare in trenches takes a toll on one’s mentality. In “All Quiet on The Western Front” Paul dies after losing so many friends on the front lines. Because of the front lines he gave up in life and just wanted it all to end. He continues the theme of “WW1 trenches can change someone’s life” in “Three Comrades”. He does this by changing the way Robert Lohkamp (main character) looks at life after coming back from trench warfare.

Artifact 14: Quote




“I can picture in my mind a world without war, a world without hate. And I can picture us attacking that world, because they'd never expect it.”

This shows the theme of the horrors of war because it shows that this world always find a way to deal with their problems in a military outcome. It also shows that people can’t learn to live in a place of peace because the people have been so corrupted by war.

Artifact 15:

Paul Baumer was a great comrade, and an even greater person. He cared about all of the soldiers fighting in the war, comrade or enemy. He saved his friends lives during the war and Paul also tried to comfort the French soldier while he was dying. It was unfortunate that Paul had to die less then a month before the war ended. Although that’s probably how he would have wanted to go, the war had changed Paul and in the end, he just wanted it to be over.

This eulogy would have been for Paul and it shows that Paul, in the end had been changed by the war. The death of his friends and having to kill other men for no reason had made Paul into someone with a cold personality and in the end he was glad to have been killed rather then live. This shows how war is a horrible time and it makes men go crazy, which kills them spiritually and they cease to exist as themselves.


Artifact 16: Synopsis of The Battle of Mons


The Battle of Mons signified the first engagement between British and German forces on the Western Front, and began on August 23rd 1914. At the start of the battle the British found themselves heavily outnumbered by the Germans. The British had 70,000 troops with 300 artillery guns while the Germans had 160,000 troops with 600 artillery guns. Over the course of a few days the British suffered 1,600 casualties while the Germans suffered a numerous 8,000 casualties. This battle shows the horrors of war because for multiple days having more and more men die on each of the days would be drastic to deal with as a soldier. Marching into a battle with the advantage on your side and then realizing that your side just last 8,000 men in the same day can show the horrors of war. It proves that if one side wants the win bad enough they will win and deserve it.

Artifact 17: Food


For the British, each day they are given 10 ounces of meat and 8 ounces of vegetables. Typically each week a new supply of food would come in, but soldiers always expected delays because of all the bomb shellings. When the British advanced moving into enemy territory it added an addition 8 day delay to an already long wait for the food, spoiling the vegetables and the rotting of the bread. This is an example of horror of war because when an army either came away with a victory or defeat, that army would want a nice meal to seal the day. But when there is no food and when the food gets there rotten and spoiled, it starves the soldiers to dig in trash cans or take from others.



Brian Alts Literary project porfolio.

Artifact 1:
"On Sunday the last bill is due and the First World War finally, financially at least, terminates for Germany," declares the newspaper Bild. The penalties insisted upon by the Allies in the Versailles treaty brought financial misery to Germany, a sentiment that Adolf Hitler exploited to gain power. He vowed to "tear up this treaty." More details at the Telegraph.



Circa 1914: German soldiers in the trenches during WW I. (Getty Images)



A German zeppelin dirigible flies over a river cutting through the Balkan terrain during World War I. (Getty Images)
McMaster, Nick. “News Flash: WWI Ends Tomorrow.” Oct 2, 2010. Newser
12/ 30/10. <http://www.newser.com/story/101692/news-flash-wwi-ends-sunday.html>


Soldiers in the German army would have read this article sometime after the war when they arrived home. Upon reading the article, they would become furious. All of Germany, including the army, would have thought that this was “adding insult to injury” it was bad enough that they lost the war. But also making them have to pay for everyone else’s war debts was taking it too far! During World War 1, Germany was already suffering from food shortages and inflation. The government had to pay and feed the army before they could do the same for the regular population. With the added burden of having to pay back war debts, the inflation of the Germany currency would rise to an alarming rate. Everyone during that time knew that would happen. When Paul would read this article, he knew his family would have an even harder time living then the already were. The government would not be able to give out as much at the soup kitchens as they were handing out during WW1, they also would not be able to help Paul’s mother beat her disease because the government would have to take away funding from the hospitals to pay for the war debts.
Artifact 2:




“German gas mask, 1915-18.” Making The Modern World
12/30/10. http://www.makingthemodernworld.org.uk/everyday_life/control/1880-1939/TL.0124/

In this picture is a standard German infantry gas mask. Gas masks were giving to the Germany infantry because the Germans, while fighting, would send out gas attacks to beat their opponents. The soldiers would only have a few seconds to put on their masks before the gas had time to get into their lungs and burn them. Paul would be very familiar with this item. In the story, there were multiple times when the Germans used gas to win a fight. When Paul was fighting against the French in the graveyard, he had to use the mask for the first time. He felt how badly the mask fit on his face and how it seemed as if the mask would kill him before the gas would. The gas masks during this time would fit on the faces of the Germans so tightly that it would sometime suffocate them. Another time when Paul had to use the masks was when Paul’s group received reinforcements; the new kids didn’t know how to use the gas masks. So when they launched their next gas attack, a lot of the new soldiers were killed. Paul witnessed what would happen to men when they didn’t have their masks on in time.

Artifact 3:



Niewiarowicz, Ken. “WW1 Central Powers.”
12/30/10 <http://www.nomanslandmilitaria.com/WW1_German_1.html>

During Paul’s many journeys to the front, he may have seen soldiers sitting in machine gun nest like the soldiers in this picture. This photo shows what the daily life of a soldier may be. These men would be constantly on the front line, protecting the path for reinforcements to arrive from behind their lines. During their time on the front line, the men would experience the same fear and anxiety as Paul and his friends experienced. They would be sitting at their post waiting in fear for the next enemy attack, wondering if they were going to be killed in the next battle. This picture shows how some of the soldiers in the army felt about the war. The men in charge and the soldiers that have been in the war for a while were used to the war. But some of the new soldiers, like the one standing in the doorway with the pistol in his hand, were afraid of what they might experience in the war and doubted if it was worth it. They had not been away from home like they were now, long periods of time away from family. This caused them to wonder if they were going to see their loved ones again. These men maybe in a town as a protecting guard for the troops that were staying there for the night. All soldiers that were stationed a town or city had to have a period of “guard watching” to send an alarm of any enemy attacks that may be coming. Also, in the photo there is ammunition for the machine gun, but no visible food. This is because during the war, it was hard to get food to the soldiers on the front because of the enemy attacks that were trying to stop the movement of supplies and food.


Bryan Hugen's Literary Analysis Portfolio:


Artifact 1
imagesCABYVRBU.jpg
This would be an image that Paul Baumer would have probably seen because there was poison and toxic gases that were shot out to try to kill the enemy while protecting their own troops with the gas masks.

Artifact 2:

(1893-1968)
"The Happy Warrior"
His wild heart beats with painful sobs,
His strin'd hands clench an ice-cold rifle,
His aching jaws grip a hot parch'd tongue,
His wide eyes search unconsciously.
He cannot shriek.
Bloody saliva
Dribbles down his shapeless jacket.
I saw him stab
And stab again
A well-killed Boche.
This is the happy warrior,
This is he...

This is a poem that would describe what Paul was going through because this happened almost exactly in the way the book said. Paul was pinned down a crator while French soldiers were running by. A French soldier jumped down in front of him, and with his boyonet, Paul stabbed the soldier and he bled to death.


David's portfolio

the pictures and other stuff would not copy so here is my explinations
  1. The magazine cover I created is of an American times magazine, but in this case German. The pictures are those of what might be a motivating sight for a trench fighting German. The pictures were of allied forces being shot in no mans land, the others of fire and sleeping allied troops. The intention is to show a bunch of pictures that might motivate a German.
  2. My second artifact is a poem called” Argonne Forest” which is a story of the chaos on the front lines in the trenches. Exploding trees and men dieing all around; something paul might have seen while he was in the trenches of ww1.
  3. Third was a map of where the trenches were for the most part of ww1. The line is long and for every mile it shows it makes you think of how many men died on the lines. This makes you think about paul and how his friends were lost in battle.
  4. Last is a list of some items that might have been on paul in the trenches. The items were a…
    Gun
    Knife
    Food
    Cards
    Friends
    Helmet
    Bullets
    These items were all vital in keeping you alive, so that is why I think these would be in Paul’s possession.